History of photography

General consideration
As a means of communication and visual expression, photography has different aesthetic capabilities. To understand them, you must first understand the features of the process itself. One of the most important features is immediacy. Usually, but not necessarily, the image that is recorded consists of a lens on a camera. When exposed to the light that forms the image, the sensitive material undergoes changes in its structure, a latent (but inverted) image is formed, generally called a negative, and the image becomes visible by development and permanent when fixed with sodium thiosulfate , called “hiccup”. . “With modern materials, processing can take place immediately or be delayed for

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weeks or months.
The essential elements of the image are usually established immediately upon exposure. This feature is unique to photography and sets it apart from other ways of taking pictures. The seemingly automatic recording of an image using photography has given the process a sense of authenticity that no other imaging technique shares. Photography possesses, in the popular mind, such apparent precision that the adage “the camera does not lie” has become an accepted clich√©, albeit incorrect.
This understanding of photography’s supposed objectivity dominated assessments of its role in the arts. In the early part of its history, photography was sometimes considered a mechanical art due to its reliance on technology. In reality, however, photography is not the automatic process involved in using a camera. Although the camera generally limits the photographer to depict existing objects rather than imaginary or interpretive views, the experienced photographer can introduce creativity into the mechanical reproduction process. The image can be edited with different lenses and filters. The type of sensitive material used to record the image is an additional control, and the contrast between highlights and shadows can be changed by development variations. When printing the negative, the photographer has a wide variety of options on the physical surface of the paper, the tonal contrast and the color of the image. The photographer can also set up a completely artificial scene to photograph.
The most important control is, of course, the vision of the creative photographer. He or she chooses the point of view and the exact moment of exposure. The photographer perceives the essential qualities of the subject and interprets them according to his judgment, taste and involvement. Effective photography can spread information about humanity and nature, record the visible world, and expand human knowledge and understanding. For all these reasons, photography has rightly been called the most important invention since the days of printing.

Invent the medium
The precursor to the camera was the camera obscura, a darkroom or room with a hole (later a lens) in one wall, through which images of objects outside the room were projected onto the opposite wall. The principle was probably known to the Chinese and ancient Greeks as Aristotle over 2,000 years ago. In the late 16th century, the Italian scientist and writer Giambattista della Porta demonstrated and detailed the use of a camera obscura with an objective. While artists in later centuries often used variations of the camera obscura to create images they could trace, the results of these devices depended on the artist’s drawing skills, so scientists continued to search for a method to accurately reproduce the images. completely mechanical.
In 1727, the German anatomy professor Johann Heinrich Schulze showed that the darkening of silver salts, a phenomenon known since the 16th century and possibly even earlier, was caused by light and not by heat. He demonstrated the fact by using sunlight to engrave words in salts, but he made no attempt to preserve the images permanently. The discovery of him, in combination with the darkroom, provided the basic technology needed for photography. However, it wasn’t until the early 19th century that photography really was born.

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